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diy cnc router

by:Luteng CNC Parts     2020-09-19
If you have any interest in purchasing the kit version of this machine, please click the button above and fill out the form so I can measure the level of interest.
This Instructure will show you how to build one that allows you to cut 3-
Use a standard hand-held router, D-shaped with wood, plastic and aluminum.
Recently I have noticed that more and more of the instructures projects involve the use of some kind of CNC machine, whether it is laser cutting machine, 3d printer, milling machine, etc.
I want to join this revolution in digital manufacturing and start using these tools to make my project better.
So, about a year ago, I started looking for a way to achieve this and came to the conclusion that a simple 3-axis CNC router would be the best option to achieve this.
I started doing some research and decided to design and build my own machine.
Despite all the components needed to build the machine I designed, and the reason why I built the machine, this is an enlightening step.
It also includes an explanation of CNC technology, which will be a good reference for anyone who wants to learn some metal manufacturing skills.
I hope someone can use these plans to build this router for themselves or at least get some inspiration from my design.
I have created 2d drawings for all parts including full dimensions and specifications, details on how to build each part, complete list of parts and tools, and prices and links, basic wiring diagram and design instructions.
I designed this router for a very wide range of uses and would like to use this machine as a 3-
D printer and future hot wire foam cutter.
The machine is made of rectangular steel pipes and aluminum plates and is manufactured using small horizontal band saws, bench-top drilling machines and magnetic core MIG welding machines.
There is no need for high precision and expensive tools to make this machine.
Using the techniques of marking, centering, drilling and tapping anyone who wants to build something that I have listed in this manual, will be able to complete the project.
There is no angle to cut, and there is no part that looks impossible to be right, just straight cut and drill holes.
The machine is bolted together and can be adjusted according to the square and water level on each shaft.
For those who already know the CNC router, this is the specification of my machine. Travel: X-
Y axis 23
Z axis 13in
6-axis linear guide rail: fully support the circular linear guide rail and mounting bearing (
20mm, 16mm, 12mm)
Linear Drive: 1/2 \"-
10 5 start precision ACME screws and DumpsterCNC
Backlash NutsDrive motor and controller: Gecko G540 controller with Gecko 280 oz
On the aluminum platform of 3/8 thick: Bosch Bolt decoration router fast speed: 200ipm (
Inches per minute)
Cutting speed: 1/4 \"Vertical Grinding, full width cutting, 0.
100 \"cutting depth, 50ipm, material-hardwood (
This is a fairly easy cut, probably less than half of the true cutting ability)
Let\'s start with the basics of anyone.
CNC represents computer numerical control, which extends to many different applications, but in most cases is used to describe machines controlled by computers to remove a small amount of material from larger materials.
Most of these machines use rotary drill bits with sharp edges to scrape off small pieces of material in a very controlled way until the desired final shape is left.
By using a computer, very precise shapes can be cut from almost any material.
So this is very basic, let\'s take a look at some of the details of my CNC machine type.
There are many different types of CNC machines, but they are best distinguished by the type and size of the material designed to cut.
In general, if someone mentions a CNC \"milling machine\", they refer to a metal cutter, and if they say this is a CNC \"router\", it means a machine used to cut wood, plastic or other soft material.
This Instructure will show you how to build a CNC router.
If you are learning CNC and considering building your own machine, I would highly recommend that you look at this site.
Com has a wealth of knowledge about designing your own CNC router, as well as an explanation of different types of router design, as well as a list of commonly used terms in CNC lingo.
When I first thought about building a CNC machine, I was lucky enough to stumble across the site, which helped me make a lot of basic design decisions in the early days.
Once you have read everything on cncroutersource.
You can join the Big League and join cnczone. com forum.
Here you will find a lot of information and a huge community of active users who are doing what you want for your CNC.
There is a specific section of the CNC router forum that has released many build threads that will make you drool with envy.
Is there a problem with CNC?
A simple search for this forum will most likely answer all your CNC questions.
Keep in mind that a lot of initials acronyms and jargon are used on cnczone, but you should be able to figure it out if you have read cncroutersource.
You know my decision now and hope to understand my reasoning.
I think my part combination is very good and beyond my expectations.
If you decide to make a machine according to my plan, I have listed everything in the following steps.
Accessories are drawings of all sizes and specifications in \"diy cnc router drawings.
Pdf \"Parts List pdf contains all the parts and tools listed in the Instructure.
I also include 123D files for the entire component of the router.
You can open and view the model and all individual parts using the free software 123D.
This is the diy cnc router in 123D Gallery.
The stepping motor mounting plate is the clever name of the board that installs the stepping motor.
This part is designed to be universal to the machine and you need to make 5 of them.
This part is made of aluminum flat material of 2.
5 \"1/4 wide\" thick.
This is a good starting point for this project as you have to use all the tools you need to build this machine, which is a fairly simple part.
First cut 5 pieces to 4 \"length, then you need to arrange the holes using dykem, scribe, and combined squares.
I didn\'t do it for this part because a friend converted a small mill into CNC and made a fixture for me.
Even if you don\'t know someone can do this, I would suggest you make a fixture first.
To do this, just lay out all the holes and drill them in the same size, which is the size you have a transfer punch.
This will be a reference for all your 5 parts, you just have to transfer all the hole positions of all the plates.
This will save you a lot of time and energy.
Once all the holes are drilled by the transfer punch to the dimensions shown on the drawing, follow my good drilling guide line.
For counter drilling, use the stop device on the machine to set the depth of the drilling machine.
First do a test counter hole and check the depth with M5 head socket head cover screw.
You need the head of the screw below the surface of the part.
All five parts are basically the same in addition to the board that installs the z-axis stepping machine.
The board needs two extra holes to fit it on the z-axis board, which is shown on the second drawing.
On the other hand, at this point, you should also make a fixture for the gantry, Step 16.
This will help you build many parts.
Let me start by saying that it is not worth your time to make your own position.
These parts can be purchased for less than a dollar and can be made with better tolerances.
I would recommend part 91780a63 of Mcmaster carr. This confrontation used 10-
32 screws so you need us to replace M5 with it but 10-
32 screws are cheaper because they are more common.
I did these stand-offs, but it is likely that they will be replaced with Mcmaster parts soon.
I made a fixture with a fixing screw to hold the tube, which allowed me to drill both ends with a drill press and keep the parts on tap.
My results are not the best, but close enough, which is why I suggest buying only those parts. The x-
The shaft frame is made of 1x2x0.
065 \"steel pipe.
The side rails are fixed with adhesive tape and can be installed with 20mm linear rails.
You have to buy the linear guide before you start making these parts.
There are mounting holes on the rails I get, but it looks like someone is going to the town with a hand drill to drill these holes.
Their drilling accuracy is not high, so you need to transfer all the positions that are punched for each track.
Use the drawing as a reference, but mark the position according to the actual part.
The end matches the hole pattern on the stepping motor mounting plate, so just use the fixture to transfer the position of the punch.
Four 3/8 holes were drilled in the corner to mount the machine to the mid-slim board base.
The frame is welded together with the right angle fixture of the Northern Tool.
This is the first time I have welded with such a clip, and I was impressed by its accuracy and ease of use.
This part is made of 2 \"x1/8\" thick steel corners.
The cut at both ends is done with a band saw in a vertical position.
I use sandpaper plates on the angle mill to get a smooth finish after cutting.
I marked all the holes with Scribe and combined square.
When drilling 5/8 holes in the center, clamp the parts well, just for safety.
These parts are fairly simple but require a lot of drilling and drilling.
All the holes on the vertical tube are designed to allow the gantry to be installed higher or lower on the machine.
This allows the machine to be optimized for different materials that you may want to cut.
For example, if I cut the plate mainly, I can lower the gantry and extend the bearing on the Z axis more space, which will make the machine more rigid for cutting thinner material.
Before welding each part together, make sure to drill and knock all the holes required for each part.
I use the fixture I made for the Gantry mounting plate to locate and transfer all the threaded holes.
If you have done this, then it\'s time to take a little CNC action on yourself.
Connect everything together as shown in the figure.
Check out the z-axis assembly step 22 to see how the drive screws are assembled.
Once it fits together, turn the screw by hand and watch the gantry post slide down along the linear guide rail, which is a beautiful thing.
Enjoy a while and then work back to the rest of the machine.
Almost the same process as before is to transfer the punch and mark the position of the holes at both ends.
Then go back to the drill press.
Use the clamps you make for Gantry mounting plates and step mounting plates to position and transfer the punch holes.
Then continue drilling and digging.
These pictures show how I can mark the holes of the fixture, which I made together with the motor mounting plate fixture at the beginning.
This is then used to make 4 actual plates for the machine and to position and transfer punching on other parts.
This part is made by 1.
5 \"x 1/8\" thick aluminum corners.
I marked all the holes with Scribe and combined square.
I put this part on a pair when I drill holes.
For the sake of safety, when drilling a hole of 5/8, the part is to be removed from the well.
It\'s a big bit for my little bit, and even at the slowest speed it can spin very fast.
This leads to a lot of vibrations that can lead to disasters.
Be careful when drilling with a large bit on a bench rig.
You\'re ready to take y-
The axes are combined, using pictures and drawings as a reference.
At first glance, crafting this part seems like a daunting task, but it can be done.
The picture shows the size of three digits after the decimal point, but does not think it must be completely perfect, maybe two digits after the decimal point is enough.
To make this more reasonable, divide the holes into several parts and do each group separately.
The counter is drilled into the y-axis bearing, starting from there.
Once it is well moved to the threaded hole of the Z axis guide you should transfer the punch so that it will not be that difficult.
Then do the central threaded hole for installing the drive part.
Done with holes on the top edge of the plate.
To drill these holes, I had to rotate the head of my drill press and hold the plate with a separate pair.
Unless you have a bit that is bigger and has a bigger gap, you may have to do something so smart.
Just like before marking, the center is punched and drilled to complete this part.
Note that no extra holes are required for this part, follow the drawing and you will be fine.
Also, for this part you have to cut off the part 1/8 wide on one side.
I made this with a band saw in a vertical position.
Cut this part a little short on one side again and Mark and drill.
The z-axis is very similar to x and y, but before you bolt all the components of the z-axis, you need to install the z-axis plate on the y-axis bearing.
If you have built everything up at this point, you are a main hole rig and this part will be perfect.
At least that\'s what I thought when I finished this part.
Use those newly acquired and quickly mastered skills to complete the precision parts needed for this machine.
It\'s also easy to buy a 3/4 mid-fiber board from the hardware store and have them cut or cut themselves.
Each of the four rebar bars is 4 \"long, connecting the base with the x-axis frame.
They are also used to level the frame. I used 3/8\"-
24nf thin line, but normal thick line work is also effective.
I use the 1 \"shovel bit to counter the holes on the mid-fiber board.
You should be deep enough for the bolts and nuts to sit under the surface of the wood.
There are two bench support rods fixed on the x-axis frame.
They are made of 1 \"x1\" steel pipe and 1 \"x3/16\" steel bar.
You should cut the 3/16 thick stick into 4 3 long pieces and drill the M6 holes first.
Then drill holes on the x-axis frame (
I made these parts after welding the x-axis frame together)
Now Bolt the plate to the frame and measure the pipe, it should be 32-
5/8 \"but you should install the tube as needed.
Then, when the plate is still connected to the frame, weld the pipe to the plate.
By doing so, you can make sure that the finished part can be removed and fixed on the frame.
You don\'t need to weld the entire end of each tube, just put four good sticky welds on the corner of each end.
You can then release the support bar from the frame and weld the pipe completely.
Similarly, when drilling on a pipe, be sure to go through both sides.
All you need to do is click on the top of the tube, but passing through the hole allows you to transfer the position of the hole on the workbench.
The work table is a 3/4-inch medium-fiber board, which is bolted to the support rod of the work table.
This is the surface where the material will be clamped.
For this I chose to use the mid-fiber board as it would be a sacrifice piece that could be replaced cheaply when needed.
I will mess up my work and I can cut it off if needed.
The hardware in the picture is 1/4 \"-20 x 1.
Long screws, nuts and washers.
The screw needs full thread.
Six screws are used to mount the workbench on the machine and level it.
Counter drilling allows the screw head to be located below the table top so that the material can be easily attached.
The electronic equipment of this router includes the main power switch, power supply, stepping motor controller, Power Relay, stepping motor cable, socket and electronic equipmentstop.
I plan to add limit switches and cable brackets (e-chain)soon.
I bought a 12/3 stranded power cord and a male socket plug.
This is connected to the main power switch with a red indicator light.
When the 110 v ac power is turned on, the power supply and the relay are powered.
The power supply is a 48 v DC 12 amp power supply from Mean Well.
This is for the gecko g540 wiring.
Relays are used to power Bosch Colt routers and store vac in order to suck the shavings away at run time.
The relays are controlled by the G540, which receives commands from the computer, so they can be controlled by the code you run.
The DB9 connector on the G540 is connected to the stepping motor.
Each stepping motor needs to place a resistor between the pins between 1 and 5 to control the current of the stepping motor.
Gecko provides the right resistance for the stepping motor I purchased from them.
The resistor needs to be connected to the connector that is directly connected to the controller.
The stepping motor is connected to Pin 6-
9 of the connector.
I made the extension cord from the parts list for the stepping motor with DB9 end and cat5 network cable.
The network cable has 8 conductors, but I welded the pairs of wires together and connected four for the stepping motor.
The case I used was an outdoor electrical box and after seeing the construction of the electronic case I decided to use it.
The switch is installed in the standard outlet box and the relay is bolted to the side of the box.
The power supply is installed at the bottom of the box and the G540 is placed on the top panel. The e-
A stop switch is also installed on the top panel.
I made all connections using the gauge 14 stranded line and the curl on the spade connector.
The wiring picture is basic but contains all the connections needed.
I control my router with Mach3.
Mach3 is G-
The signal is encoded and output to g540 through the parallel port on the computer.
It is highly recommended that you run mach3 and cnc using a desktop computer.
I purchased a \"non-leased\" desktop from tigerdirect for $120 and plan to use it as a dedicated CNC computer.
You also need a CAM software to convert your design to G-
Code or you can learn G-
Write your own program in the text editor.
Take a look at this information about Probotics, CNC software, which has links to many different CNC software options.
This photo is a screenshot of Mach3 that takes some time to learn, but there are a lot of videos on Artsoft\'s website and the software is well supported.
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