Urinary Stone Disease is the broad medical term used to describe the presence of 'stones' or crystallized aggregations of certain substances in the urine such as calcium, oxalate, magnesium ammonium phosphate and uric acid. The urinary stones form within the kidney where the urine accumulates before flowing into the bladder through the ureter and out of the body through the urethra. A typical urinary stone is so small in size that it passes out of the body unnoticed. It is only when the size of the stone is larger that it causes blockages and discomfort in the flow of urine either in the kidney, ureter or bladder.
There are three sub-genres of urinary stones based on their location in the urinary tract of the human body:
1. Nephrolithiasis - when the stones are located inside the kidneys.
2. Ureterolithiasis - when the stones are located in the ureter.
3. Cystolithiasis - when the stones are located in the bladder.
Urologist for female in Delhi has identified the following main factors contributing to the onset of urinary stone disease in women:
1. As Delhi experiences hot weather for the better part of the year, low fluid intake leads to dehydration in the body. Water is a proven solvent for dissolving those chemicals in the urine which have a propensity to crystallize and grow into stones.
2. High consumption of protein and sodium rich foods, refined sugars and cola drinks.
3. People may also develop urinary stones as a hereditary trait or if they suffer from Gout, IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) hyperparathyroidism, diabetes or high blood pressure.
4. The intake of certain medications such as Vitamin D supplements, diuretics and calcium-containing antacids have also been found to considerably raise the risk of formation of urinary stones.
Now comes the most important part, the symptoms. Please note that you need to immediately consult an urologist if you experience or have been experiencing the following conditions:
1. Pain that seems to occur in the area covering your back, flanks, abdomen and genital area which is excruciating in nature and comes and goes in waves.
2. Nausea and retching.
3. Passing of blood in the urine.
4. Need for frequent urination which in turn is painful in nature.
There is no cause for panic or depression should you be diagnosed with an urinary stone. This is a reversible condition with a very short recovery time. The treatment of urinary stone disease is dependent upon the size of the stone and it location in the urinary tract of the body. If the urologist in Delhi finds that the size of the stone is not too large, she may prescribe a combination of anti-inflammatory drugs to manage the pain along with alpha adrenergic blockers or calcium channel blockers to speed the spontaneous passage of the urinary stone. She would also advise you to drink lots and lots of water during the course of the medication.
Surgery is the resorted to when the size of the urinary stone is too large to be expelled through medication only. Large stones usually block the flow of urine causing swelling of the kidneys with the un-passed urine that accumulates in it which again is very painful and risky. Even so, the surgeries resorted to is minimally invasive in nature and are of two types: 1. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) - This procedure uses ultrasonic shock waves to disintegrate the urinary stones wherever they are located and have the small pieces of the stones passed out of the body through the urine by the means of a tube that is inserted before the procedure. This is the most common form of surgery used for the treatment of urinary stone diseases and it involves only a brief stay in the hospital.
2. Ureteroscopy - This the second surgical option for urologists in Delhi and elsewhere. In this procedure an extremely thin viewing instrument called the Ureteroscope is inserted into the urethra and then pushed forward through the bladder, ureter and kidney to get to the point where the stone is located. The Ureteroscope has a steel shaft which is used for breaking down the stone when located. The procedure may include the placing of an ureteral stent which is designed to allow the urine to flow past any obstructions. The stent may be retained in the body for a few days after the procedure to ensure that the stones which have been broken down pass out of the body without getting stuck anywhere else on the urinary tract.