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easy to build cnc mill stepper motor and driver circuits

by:Luteng CNC Parts     2020-09-18
This is a follow-up to the easy-to-manufacture desktop 3-axis CNC milling machine, which can run once you have the machine assembled.
So it\'s time to drive the motor.
Here, I have assembled a circuit that I think is the absolute cheapest and easiest way to control the stepping motor with stepping and directional signals.
It works with many free or low cost software that generates step and direction signals through parallel printer ports.
I will explain how it works, but for those who just want to keep working. . .
But I suggest that people who are not familiar with the circuit do it on the breadboard (see pictures).
In this way, you can easily correct any mistakes and try different things.
This schematic is just to control a motor, so for the milling machine you need 3 and 3 motors in these circuits.
From left to right, from top to bottom.
I try to draw the schematic so that the positive voltage is facing the top and the ground voltage or negative voltage is facing the bottom.
The input is on the left and the output is on the right.
First, the voltage you will use to run the motor needs to be lowered and adjusted for the logic chip. I used a 6.
2 v Zina does this because the logic chip receives signals from the printer port with low energy and high enough output to drive many standard power fet, so, you may not have to use a logical fet as shown in the schematic diagram.
Therefore, the resistor R1 reduces the voltage and the Zener diode adjusts the voltage to 6.
The 2 Volt and capacitor C1 filter out any noise from the motor, which supplies power to both IC. The first IC (CD4516)
Called up/down counter.
A signal from the printer port will tell the counter if it will count up or down, and another signal (called step) will make the counter increment or decrease one count.
Now only two outputs of counter Q1 and q2 are used.
Using this binary counting method, there are only 4 combinations of counter output: 00, 01, 10 and 11.
These lines are entered into A and B inputs for another IC (CD4028)
Decode these combinations to 4 independent outputs.
I did a trick here using C input as Enable input. If the Enable(optional)
Connected to the parallel port, the computer tells it to turn off all the outputs of the fet to be lower (Off).
Therefore, the four output-driven FET transistors of the decoder, the four poles of the FET-driven motor.
Now everyone wants to know what the light bulb is.
Whether you are using a bulb or a resistor, the bulb comes with a socket.
You can buy these wedge base bulbs between 1 W and 20 W.
It could be a 4 watt bulb in the first place, and if you find that you need more beef, you just take it out and put it in a 10 watt bulb.
It\'s really convenient.
I found it good to have some voltage drop there as a ballast for the motor winding.
Whenever the FET transistor is turned off, the diode captures some of the current generated in the motor.
The diode feeds the current back to the power supply.
When you start the circuit and run, find a power supply that is larger than the voltage you really need, and then replace the bulb until it runs smoothly.
Some of my stepping motors are 5 V or 6 V and some are 12 V but everything is OK.
Okay, this is what all of you want.
I made a simple PC board layout including 3 motor drive circuits connected to the 25-pin D sub-parallel printer port connector.
This is a picture of the layout.
At the top of the picture you can see the position of a voltage regulator.
You can use it, or you can put a resistor and Zener diode in its position (
As shown in the schematic diagram).
On the right is the 25-pin D-place.
A subconnector connected to a parallel printer port.
You just have to put the pc board between the two rows of pins and then weld it.
The left side is the position of the lamp socket.
You need to look at the schematic to see where some parts have gone but they are all there.
If you have the time machine, you can go to the future and ask yourself to make the circuit board with the finished machine, then bring it back and complete the manufacture of the machine.
I got a good board after several attempts.
The machine routes the so-called isolation path, which means that it separates the copper associated with the conductive path from all the other copper around it.
This makes some plate areas that are not related to the path still covered with copper.
You can leave this extra copper there, but when you weld, it\'s easy to find the welding bridge on the isolation path and short-circuit something.
So I picked up the soldering iron, touched it on the excess copper and took it off the board.
It makes the circuit board more like what you will get if you corrosion it chemically or buy it from the board (see below).
In any case, view the schematic and place the part accordingly.
I added a few capacitors to the power cord just for the general principle.
There are very few marks on the top of the board and I am too lazy to grind it.
I just used the jumper.
See the picture below the filler board.
All the little FETs came together like soldiers on the road.
OK, for all the chemistry majors who want to do something more professional, here are some.
PDF file you can print it out, iron it on it, or what you do to make an etched PC board.
There is a top silk (
For reference only)
Copper at the top and copper at the bottom.
If you want to be a little easier, just make the copper at the bottom.
There is not so much at the top that you can weld jumpers where you need them. Don\'t be nervous.
It\'s just a little electric.
First of all, it would be nice to load KCAM (
Or what are you going to use)
In your computer.
Then insert the parallel port connector into the driver board when you feel that all the components are in the right position (as shown below)
And install a low wattage housing on the electrical outlet.
In this case, I am using the Y-axis drive.
For power supplies, I like to use one of these universal power adapters with optional voltage outputs.
They are cheap and don\'t release a lot of current, so if something goes wrong, it\'s less likely to damage your circuit.
Set the voltage to low to see if there is a voltage on the power supply pin (16)
CD4516 and cd4028.
If you don\'t have a Volt watch, just take an LED and tie a 10 k (BRN,BLK,ORN)
Forward resistance (the long leg)
And the grounding of the wire connected to the negative pole (the short leg).
Now you can use it as a probe to see where your voltage is.
It will be very dim, but we don\'t want to draw too much current from the circuit.
Now go to the computer program and find the settings table.
Set the number of steps per inch to 1000.
Then turn on the CNC control and set a single step for it.
001 inch and activate single-step mode.
Now click the yellow arrow (
Up and down the y axis)
The computer will output a pulse to the stepping motor drive circuit.
Place the LED probe on pin 10 of the cd4516.
This is input up and down.
The input will be low when you click the up arrow (LED off)
The input will be high when you click the down arrow (LED on).
Pin 15 is a step input and you will see a very short flicker each time you click the n up or down arrow on that pin.
Pin 6 is Q1 output.
Will change the state (high/low)
Each time the arrow is clicked.
The Q2 output is pin 11.
It changes the state every time the arrow is clicked.
In terms of output, we should see some activity on the CD4028 chip.
Place the probe on any output pins 1, 4, 6 or 7.
These output drive fet.
When you click the up or down arrow, you should see that the output gets higher every 4 times.
If it all makes sense so far, then it\'s time for the motor to run.
The common wire or wire of the motor that is tapped as the center of the winding should be connected to the bulb.
The other four wires should be connected to the four fet on the circuit.
If you are really lucky, you will get the right combination in the first few attempts.
Another way is to keep switching the wires every time you click the arrow until the motor goes in the same direction.
Watch the video in the next step.
It may give you a better idea of what to do.
I am not yet a Linux user, but I have played games that are dangerous enough.
But for you, Linux user Chaddcurtis provides some installation files and information to help you use Linux CNC with parallel port and board layout.
Thank you very much for Chad and your strength.
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